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The problem of transient voltages and their effects in electrical power systems can be explained by showing how to use advanced metering techniques to identify potential transient issues. Finally, this resource will consider general solutions to transient problems.
Proven technologies exist today that can fully digitize the electrical distribution infrastructure of large and critical buildings and facilities. These are helping improve safety for people and assets, increase power reliability and business continuity, optimize operational and energy efficiency, achieve sustainability goals, and meet regulatory compliance.
For many years, scheduled infrared thermography inspections have been the accepted method for reducing risk of fire by identifying faulty or loose connections in electrical distribution systems. Continuous thermal monitoring offers a safer, more effective way to detect thermal risks on a system-wide, 24/7 basis. The method also delivers up to a 10:1 return on investment due to avoided equipment damage and downtime.
The changing world of energy is making it increasingly challenging to optimize power reliability, energy costs, and operational efficiency in critical power environments such as hospitals, data centers, airports, and manufacturing facilities. Addressing these challenges requires new digital tools designed specifically to enable faster response to opportunities and risks related to power system reliability and operations.
Businesses are finding themselves drowning in a sea of power monitoring data. Today’s systems collect too much data — managers have trouble extracting the critical “nuggets” of useful information on power reliability. This paper discusses how taking a key performance indicator (KPI)–based approach to power monitoring allows personnel to focus more on strategic goals, translate data into actionable intelligence, and get more comprehensive insight into power reliability and “see the forest for the trees.”
Even when power quality monitoring systems are in place, studies show users often have limited knowledge of power quality and its impact on equipment and installations. Thus, they may not fully understand, analyze and exploit power quality measurements. This paper introduces simple greenyellow-red (G-Y-R) indicators to gauge power quality issues; markers based on recognized power quality standards and statistical analysis, fully integrated in a power quality monitoring system. This paper also introduces a power quality rating that summarizes global power quality level within a facility.
Power quality problems are one of the major causes of unscheduled downtime and equipment malfunction and damage. This paper presents a power quality management framework–based on continuous and iterative monitoring, analysis and corrective actions– that improves power quality performance. The framework can be applied to standalone or integrated energy / power management programs and will result in reduced unexpected downtime, extended equipment lifetime, and improved operating conditions.
Today design, deployment, and operation of modern substations are changing significantly. IEC 6185 leads the way as a notably improved global standard. Built on sound engineering principles and technology, it can be leveraged to provide valuable information in power quality analysis, compliance reporting applications, and other similar functions. This paper explains why IEC 61850 is a worthy vehicle for providing power quality solutions and examines concepts for enhancing power quality aspects for improved functionality.
The importance of reliable, high-quality electrical power continues to grow as society becomes ever more reliant on digital circuitry for everything from e-commerce to industrial process controllers to the onboard circuitry in toasters and televisions. With this shift to a digital society, business activities have become increasingly sensitive to disturbances in the power supply. Such disturbances include not only power outages (the complete absence of voltage, whether for a fraction of a second or several hours), but also power quality (PQ) phenomena (all other deviations from perfect power, including voltage sags, surges, transients, and harmonics). EPRI's Consortium for Electric Infrastructure to Support a Digital Society (CEIDS) contracted Primen to conduct a national survey of business establishments to quantify the cost of power disturbances to industrial and digital economy firms.
Maintenance costs account for almost as large a percentage of a facility’s operating budget as energy expenses. But usually this money is spent inefficiently with a reactive “wait till it breaks” approach. This paper shows how a proactive, predictive maintenance approach coupled with analytics can reduce a building’s maintenance and energy costs by up to 20%. The pros and cons of different approaches to maintenance are discussed, as well as practical guidance on deciding whether to develop a smart services plan in-house or outsource it.
Hacking critical control systems for power networks is increasingly making headlines as exemplified by power grid threats in the Ukraine and Israel in late 2015 / early 2016. By applying best practices to power monitoring and control systems, security vulnerabilities can be reduced. This paper introduces the potential risks posed by hacking, identifies common system vulnerabilities, and provides strategies to mitigate against hacking. It does not, however, guarantee that it will prevent all future hacking.
The demands of modern IIoT applications increases the complexity of systems infrastructure and puts additional pressure on IT and OT security. As the frequency and sophistication of cyber-attacks increase, operations must leverage industry stand-ards to achieve consistent protection. This paper will address how IEC62443 can be applied to industrial control systems and help readers understand the various priorities and steps required to help miti-gate cyber threats.
Because electricity is a key commodity for business it represents significant financial risk. Still, many power management systems remain isolated and separate from the rest of the business enterprise. The result is poor access to incomplete information, with only limited knowledge of risk exposure. An integrated, comprehensive power management system that includes metering, software and power quality mitigation equipment offers the most holistic, systems-based approach to managing this risk exposure.
This paper shows how increasing the level of network automation and control improves the operating efficiency of medium-voltage distribution networks. It evaluates the investment necessary for various technological solutions to minimize power unavailability. Solutions discussed range from fault passage indicators (FPIs) and remote control, to automatic circuit reclosers (ACRs) and sectionalizers used in a feeder automation scheme.
Lighting represents a significant portion of global energy use, in some cases approaching 10% of all electrical consumption. Thus, replacing incandescent bulbs with LEDs, which use 75% less energy, offers a viable energy efficiency opportunity. However, because LEDs are non-linear loads they can have a significant impact on power quality. This paper reviews those concerns, and assesses the impact of power quality disturbances on power quality.
Circuit breakers require regular maintenance to ensure electrical safety, comply with safety regulations, and avoid costly facility downtime. Typically, this maintenance is performed at regular intervals, which do not account for usage patterns or environmental conditions. This paper explores how IoT and analytic technologies enable a condition-based, predictive approach that can increase levels of safety and reliability while tailoring maintenance to optimize costs.
Many facility owners and managers are setting up measurement plans to gather the broad range of information needed to improve energy efficiency, reduce operating costs, and ensure power reliability. To collect this information requires power metering and monitoring devices (PMDs) that go beyond the capability of the traditional revenue meter. Up to now, choosing the best PMD for each application has been difficult due to the lack of common references between vendors regarding accuracy, operating conditions, and quality. This guide will help electrical system designers use the IEC 61557-12 standard to more easily specify the appropriate devices needed to support an effective power and energy management plan.
Utility engineers, facility managers, and energy management professionals are demanding rich power and energy data from more locations to help them understand and ensure the reliability, efficiency, and cost effectiveness of their power distribution systems and the energy generated or consumed. These goals can be achieved when supported by a complete energy measurement plan that includes properly specified power metering and monitoring devices (PMDs). This guide describes the most common measurement applications, associated standards, and the type and capabilities of measuring devices that will deliver the required data.
The testing of emergency power supply systems (EPSS) in hospitals plays a critical role to ensure backup power is available when needed. This testing is usually done weekly or monthly and depending on the jurisdiction, different regulatory bodies dictate the parameters of the test. Most commonly, diesel engines are used as prime movers for emergency power supply generators. While diesel engines are known for their reliability and fuel efficiency, it is critical that the testing is carried out within certain limits to make sure that the reliability is increased rather than decreased as a result of the testing.
Emergency power systems rely on batteries to deliver power at the right moment, in order to start a generator or to run a UPS in the event of an outage. Neglected batteries, however, are the most common reason for backup power failure. This paper discusses how automated testing systems provide precise functional assessments of battery health, and how such systems prevent unnecessary failures.
Today design, deployment, and operation of modern substations are changing significantly. IEC 6185 leads the way as a notably improved global standard. Built on sound engineering principles and technology, it can be leveraged to provide valuable information in power quality analysis, compliance reporting applications, and other similar functions This paper explains why IEC 61850 as a worthy vehicle for providing power quality solutions and examines concepts for enhancing power quality aspects for improved functionality.
IT devices may exhibit electrical input current with a characteristic called “leading power factor”. This situation may cause back-up generators to become unstable and shut down. Furthermore, a data center that is operating correctly for a long time may suddenly develop a problem as the IT load changes over time, or during an unusual event. This means that it is important to understand the margin of safety and correct for this condition before it happens. This paper explains the problem, why and how it occurs, and how to detect and correct it.
This guide is intended for Application Engineers, third-party integrators, and other qualified personnel who are responsible for power quality solutions design. Our medium voltage dynamic power correction solution is made of our AccuSine PFV+ dynamic var compensation equipment, VarSet low voltage capacitor banks, MV/LV transformers and LV switchboards. Our purpose is to provide a standard product based solution for applications requiring a high performance system for power factor correction at medium voltage level, up to 36kV.
Reliably predict how an Ethernet gateway will perform on a customer site and enable system integrators to compare Com'X 510 performance with other gateways for optimal component selection in a solution. The Com'X 510 Response Time Tool described in this document can help determine if the selected gateway meets the end customer's requirements on performance and response time.
Tested, validated, and documented instructions for deploying the Com'X 510 Energy Server as an alternative to an energy monitoring software solution. The target application is for small to medium buildings. It describes the network architecture for an entry-level energy monitoring solution for these types of facilities using the Com'X 510 inputs combined with meter data. When properly configured, the Com'X 510 can display logged and real-time data through web pages on the Com'X 510, as well as through data log publication.
PFC Detuned Reactors Aluminum over Copper Reactors - Facts and Myths
Improvements in technology have made aluminum-wound transformers equally as efficient and reliable as copper, and with greater short circuit strength compared to copper wound transformers/reactors.